Sunday, June 10, 2012

Khilafah; A Shining Model for Quality Higher Education





Campus as one of the printers of intellectuals is now experiencing a decline in function. Globalization requires several campuses in Indonesia to change their status to become autonomous campuses. The campus is actually a place where intellectuals get quality education and conduct useful research for the nation, turning into a business tool to generate large profits.

Capitalism Higher Education

Universities were initially funded primarily by public taxes (public funding) Funded university work public funding is public goodsnot private goods. Thus, the public tends to more easily access the work of Higher Education without expensive licenses. This is in line with the function of Tri Dharma Perguruan Tingggi which emphasizes the synergy of the campus as an educational institution, research as well as community service.

But apparently, at present the concept has shifted. Higher education tends to be privatized and capitalized. Strengthening the privatization of education, for example, can be seen in Article 53 (1) of Law No. 20/2003 concerning the National Education System (Sisdiknas). In this article it is stated, the organizers and / or formal education units established by the Government or the community are in the form of educational legal entities. In this article it is clearly stated that the community must participate in financing education.


As a result, the operational costs of higher education swelled because it was managed independently by the campus and handed over to the private sector. In other words, the country began to give up on the problem of education. Then autonomous campuses emerged whose quality of graduate output was questionable. With campus autonomy, only people with thick pockets can enter college. Although smart and passed the selection through invitations or test paths, the intellectual candidates of this nation were blocked with costs ranging from millions to hundreds of millions.


The cost of attending college is around Rp 3 million to Rp 40 million. Minimum test fee of IDR 1 million for several universities. While the minimum development funds of Rp. 10 million to Rp. 100 million. For prospective new students who pass the State University Entrance National Entrance Test (SNMPTN) writing test in Brawijaya University Malang, East Java, they must pay an Education Facility Development Contribution (SPFP) worth Rp 30 million. Meanwhile, if you pass through the independent pathway in the Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Unibraw Malang, you must pay an SPFP of Rp 155 million (www.kompas.com, 02/05/2012).


Another impact of the privatization of education is the shifting of research, whose output is really needed by the community, into the researches desired by fund disbursers. Campus will prefer to be busy doing business for its survival rather than concentrating on improving the intellectual quality of its human resources.


How Islam Finances Education

In Islam, the state must guarantee the welfare and pay the salaries of educators by using state treasury (Baitul Mal). For example, during the Caliph Umar bin al-Khaththab, education funding was derived from the collection of fees jizyah, kharaj and usyur (Muhammad, 2002). There are 2 (two) sources of Baitul Mal income that can be used to finance education, namely:

(1) post fai` and kharaj - which is state ownership - such as ghanimah, khumus (one fifth of war booty), jizyah, and dharibah (tax); (2) public ownership posts, such as oil and gas, forest, sea and hima (public property whose use has been specified). Whereas income from the zakat post, cannot be used to finance education, because zakat has its own designation, namely eight classes of mustahik zakat (Qur'an 9: 60). (Zallum, 1983; An-Nabhani, 1990).


If the two sources of income turned out to be inadequate, and it was feared that negative effects would arise (dharar) if there is a delay in financing, then the state is obliged to fulfill it immediately by way of debt (qardh) This debt is then repaid by the state with funds from dharibah (tax) collected from the Muslims (Al-Maliki, 1963). The education costs of the Baitul Mal are largely spent on 2 (two) interests.

First
, to pay the salaries of all parties related to education services, such as teachers, lecturers, employees, and others. Second, to finance all kinds of educational facilities and infrastructures, such as school buildings, dormitories, libraries, handbooks, and so on. (An-Nabhani, 1990).


The Islamic System Guarantees the Quality of Higher Education

In Islam, everyone is required to be an intellectual who has integral intelligence - intellectual, spiritual, emotional and political intelligence. Islamic mastery and adequate life science, along with commitment to holding the basic principles of Islam, requires an intellectual to be able to solve the problems he faces in life, whether personal problems, family problems, or problems that occur in the life of society and the state. An Islamic education system is certainly an absolute necessity to produce skilled workers and experts in their fields. In this case, the state must take strategic policies that ensure that there are always teachers, lecturers, nurses, doctors, engineers, mujtahids, and other personnel whose existence is mandatory with the amount needed by the community.


In the search for Science, Islam provides a number of motivations and
guideline so that it always goes according to syara law '. In Muslim societies, the use of technology will also be limited by syara 'law. Technology will only be used to humanize humans, not enslave them. Technology is used to make Islam rahmatan lil alamin, not to colonize other countries.

As for research policies in Islamic countries, there are short-term and long-term policies that can be carried out within the scope of individuals, communities (groups) and countries. Short-term policies are more the domain of individual Muslim scientists who are committed to the development of science and technology in Islamic countries. In this case, they must set an example through the productivity of their research, their professionalism and their tireless efforts to socialize the scientific culture in society. Whereas the role of the community (group) is to push the scientific policy agendas to the government as well as to change public opinion so as to contribute to the scientific culture and scientific policy of the country later.


Meanwhile, in the long run, the state takes a number of policies that are able to create an atmosphere that supports the work of Muslim scientists, ensuring the continuation of the scientific profession, along with its appreciation. The state provides positive stimuli for the development of science and research. The state provides facilities (facilities and infrastructure) in the form of the widest guarantee of education and opportunities for all citizens to continue their education to a higher stage.


The history of science also notes that the Islamic world has achieved brilliant mastery in the fields of science and technology. We can find a series of famous scientists such as Ibn Battuta (geography), Ar-Razi (pediatric), Ibn Sina (medicine), Ibn Al-Haytham (physics-optics), Banu Musa (technique), Ibnu Yunus (astronomy), Ibnu Hayyan (chemistry), Al Khawarizmi (mathematics), and many others. This brilliance can be obtained when Islam is not considered a ritual religion, but is applied as a whole (kaaffah) in a system of Khilafah Islamiyah countries.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Al-Jawi, Muhammad Shiddiq, Islamic Education Financing. http://khilafah1924.org
Al-Maliki, Abdurrahman, As-Siyasah Al-Iqtishadiyah Al-Mutsla, (Hizbut Tahrir: t.p.), 1963
An-Nabhani, Taqiyuddin, An-Nizham Al-Iqtishadi fi Al-Islam, (Beirut: Darul Ummah), 1990
Muhammad, Quthb Ibrahim, Kebijakan Ekonomi Umar bin Khaththab (As-Siayasah Al-Mali Li 'Umar bin Khaththab), Translator Ahmad Syarifuddin Salih, (Jakarta: Ustadz Azzam), 2002
Zallum, Abdul Qadim, Al-Amwal fi Daulah Al-Khilafah, (Beirut: Darul 'Ilmi lil Malayin), 1983


By:Emma Lucia Fitrianty, S.Si (Emma Kaze)
The author of the book "Men Hermaprodit" and Statistic Consultant

MuslimDaily/The Truth Seeker Media

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