Saturday, June 16, 2012

Ancient Greek experts vs. Muslim experts in the exact sciences




Ancient Greek mathematics was formed from the materials of the traditions of the Sumarians, Babylonians and Ancient Egyptians, as well as Natural Sciences / science, whose principles were only observations. Measuring was developed systematically by Ancient Greek experts, and reached the peak of his progress in Euclid's time.

But in other fields of mathematics, namely arithmetic, it does not obtain progress. There is no incremental operation, just add, subtract, multiply and divide. Thus they only remain in rational numbers. This brings severe consequences, arithmetic cannot keep up with the development of geometry, so the measuring science runs on its own without the support of arithmetic. There are several parts of the Plato Dialogue (427 - 347 BC) which show that the separation reached its peak, meaning that both have been completely separated in Euclid's time.


As a result mathematics in the hands of the Ancient Greeks broke two in its true understanding. Advanced measuring science darted forward leaving arithmetic far behind. Thus mathematics in ancient Greece could not be used to support science / science in terms of testing the results of natural interpretation, so that science was only fixated on speculative theories. So the principle of the Ilmiyah Approach in the days of Ancient Greece stopped only until interpretation as an advanced stage of observation.

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The ancient Muslim specialists in the golden age of Islam (7th to 13th century Miladiyah) succeeded in expanding the science of measurement into the corners and the measurement of the ball as we know it today. Al Battani (858 - 929) replaced the arc with a sine, using tangen and kotangen. Abu 'lWafa (940 - 997) acquired a new method for creating a sine table, introducing a space and space.

Operations in arithmetic are complemented by root operations and logarithms as opposed to ranks. Thus the scope of numbers becomes wider, namely irrational and imaginary numbers. The words logarithm and algorithmism come from the name of the person who got it, namely Al Khawarismi (780 - 850).

In the hands of Muslim scholars, the branches of mathematics, namely arithmetic and geometry were developed, then woven into a whole, not separated as in its condition in the hands of the ancient Greek experts. So it became mathematics as a scientific discipline that supports the method of testing in science. As a result, Islamic culture (meaning culture filled with non-historical values, namely revelation) can contribute to a trial method that enables the birth of Science as we have it today.

The ideal for the Ancient Greeks was visual beauty. This is the basis of their ideology. Beauty based on comparisons expressed by a fixed number relationship. Human faces, sculptures, or architectural forms, even drama must have fixed comparisons between the parts to be beautiful. Getting out of the relationship of the comparative numbers results in something that is "broken" in shape so that it doesn't become beautiful anymore. This pattern of thought produces the view that the universe is a static entity, because parts of this universe must have a comparison expressed by a fixed number relationship. As a result, the notion of time is not something that needs attention, because the universe is static. Even according to Zeno and Plato time is something that is not real (unreal). So we can understand if the Ancient Greek experts only produced mathematics that was static in nature, did not contain elements of variables and functions. Thus the idea of ​​the Ancient Greeks who considered the ideal of visual beauty, can only produce static mathematics.

The ideal for a Muslim is not visual beauty, but the Infinite, ie Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala with its Perfectly Perfect attributes. Muslim experts are led by non-historical roots, the revelation revealed to Prophet Muhammad Shallahu alaihi wasallam, the Quran. In Surat. Al Fathihah Allah is called Rabbul'alamien, Supreme Regulator of the universe. Thus the universe is not static, but is dynamic. And the important element in the dynamics is time. So according to the opinion of a Muslim at that time, not like the views of Zeno and Plato on it. Even in the Qur'an there is a sura called Surat. Al 'Ashr. This Surah is opened with the words wa-l'Ashri, which means watching time.

The entry of time factors in mathematics, changing the face of mathematics has become new at all. Calculating science is developed into algebra. Static arithmetic elements namely numbers, enriched with dynamic elements, namely variables and functions. In mathematics there are two ways of expressing functions. The first is direct y (x), the second through the time parameter x (t), y (t), which is displayed by Al Biruni (793 - 1048). Umar Khayyam also created a kind of mathematics which he called al khiyam, unfortunately that science did not develop until today.

In conclusion, we can see that the Ancient Greek scholars were unable to develop mathematics to be used as a scientific discipline in terms of supporting the method of testing in science.

Ancient Muslim scholars have succeeded in developing mathematics, so that mathematics can be used as a scientific discipline that can support testing methods in science, so that science can achieve its present form, namely observation, interpretation of observations that produce speculative theories and then elements of testing that filter theory the speculative is not speculative anymore. If your answer is answered.


IWD/The Truth Seeker Media

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