Monday, June 11, 2012

Problem Terminology 'Samawi Religion'




One issue in understanding religious pluralism that needs to be observed is the use of the term 'the samawi religion'and the term' abrahamic religion '. There has been a long circulating understanding among the people, that Judaism and Christianity belong to the divine religion - religion that descends from God. Some Islamic Education textbooks for secondary schools even teach such things. Logically, if the two religions are divine religions, then the two religions are revelations. Because of the religion of revelation, it has the same truth as Islam.


This understanding needs to be straightened out. Because it can lead to the ideology of religious relativism. Pluralists reasoned, they (Jews and Christians) included divine religion, and religion that had a 'sanad' with Prophet Ibrahim. The reason they put forward, Judeo-Christians have the same roots as Islam. Namely both lead to the religion of Prophet Ibrahim. So the difference between Islam and Judeo-Christianism is like not a difference in principle but furu 'iyah. This is epsitemological fallacy, because of fundamental differences (ushuliyah) rated as furu'iyah.


The adherents of religious pluralism argue, the sharp difference between religious rituals between them is not a fundamental issue, because conceptually, the theology of the three semitic religions, according to them, is the same, namely both derived from the teachings of Prophet Ibrahim. The problem is, if the theology is assumed to originate from the same teachings, why in fact is the difference sharp enough. There are those who believe God is three, while others believe in God is only one. This is a difference that cannot be equated. And it is also impossible to come from the same source.


This is the essence of the theory the abrahamic faiths (Abraham's religions) which became one of the agendas in the campaign for religious liberalization and were being discourse and developed by liberals to justify that Judaism, Christianity and Islam were not theologically different in principle.


Plural-Liberal

For some people, this term sounds new. But actually, this term among observers of thought has been popular since the seventies. Namely, when the Academy of American Religions held a conference attended by major figures from the world of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam in New York in 1979. Since then, this term has been rolling and continues to be discussed.

Theory abrahamic faiths This is based on two assumptions. First, historical (historical) assumptions, and second, theological assumptions (divinity). Historically, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, came to the figure of Abraham. Because, from the children of Abraham the religions were born. The son of Abraham, the son of Abraham, sent down the children of Israel. From the descendants of the descendants of the Israelites it was born Jewish and Christian. While the religion of Islam, brought by the Prophet Muhammad, his nasab path is connected to the son of Prophet Ibrahim named Isma'il.


Whereas theologically, they assume that Good God of the three Judaism, Christianity and Islam is the same - even though there are differences in the mention of God. Lord Yahweh (God of Judaism), Jesus (Christian), and God (Islam), are gods worshiped by Prophet Ibrahim.

These assumptions are certainly not true and confusing. Moses and the prophets from other Israelites never mentioned his religion by the name of the Jews. Jews are the names of the nations where Moses was preaching for the nation. The religion of Moses and the previous prophets was not Jewish. Similarly, Jesus, during his life, did not introduce to his people that the religion brought was a Christian religion.

As stated in the Qur'an, Surat al-Anbiya: 25 that the religion revealed by Allah to the prophets and messengers is basically one. God never sent down two or three different religions. And God does not mean the total disconnection or replacement of His religion with the arrival of new prophets.


The religion of the prophets by the Koran is called the Tauhid religion, din al-Fitrah, or din al-Qayyim. Essentially these names indicate the name of Islam. Because between din al-fitrah or din al-Qayyim with the Islamic religion the essence teaches three basic points, namely invoking worship to God without associating, confirming the truth that had been taught by previous prophets, and confirming the truth of the final teaching brought by Prophet Muhammad.


The Qur'an even mentions Abraham, Prophet Yunus, and other Israelite prophets as Muslims (see Surah Yunus 71-72, Yunus: 84, Ali Imran: 67, al-Naml: 44, and Ali Imran: 52 ) So, even though Allah did not name the religion of the prophets before the Prophet Muhammad in the name of Islam, but Ibn Taimiyah in "al-Jawab al-Shahih liman Baddala din al-Masih " call the religion of the prophets with al-Islam al-'aam. The essence of the theological doctrine is the same, but the different is Shari'ah - which was later refined by the religion of Islam.


Not the Samawi Religion

Judaism and Christianity were never known by prophets before the Prophet Muhammad. The two religions are not samawi, but can be called cultural religion. The main doctrine of Judaism today, according to Prof. Dr. Muhammad al-Syarqawi, researcher and expert on the Talmudic book from Cairo University, began when after the Torach (Old Testament) and Talmud were written by the disciples of the prophet Moses and the people thereafter.

According to as-Syarqawi, many of the teachings of the Jewish religion originated from the Talmud which contained pagan, racial, and insulting teachings to other people. Even a Jewish leader, Rabbi Rotski, acknowledged that the Talmud was not written by Prophet Moses, but by Jewish rabbis (see "Kitab Israil al-Aswad " karya Muhammad al-Syarqawi).


The essence of the Lord Yahweh (Lord of the Jewish religion) cannot be equated with God. Ahmad Syalabi, an expert on religious comparison, said that the tradition of worshiping Judaism was influenced by the Kan'an people - that is, a nation that had once inhabited the Palestinian territories. The name Yahweh, according to some Western historians themselves, is a name that comes from outside the tradition of Judaism. The name is said to have originated from the Median and Kan'an paganism traditions - namely the pagans before the arrival of Moses.


When inhabiting their territory, the nation of Israel copied many Median cultural traditions, including its religious traditions. Other experts, such as Harold Bloom, Freedman, and Abbas Mahmud al-Aqqad agreed that the name Yahweh was a mystery, a conjecture, and it is not certain whether it was the name of the Lord Moses or not.


Some say, it comes from Arabic Ya Hu (O He). This opinion also cannot be verified scientifically. Because it is not clear, the Jews wrote Yahweh with the symbol of YHWH - meaning that the name was never clearly stated in the tradition of Jewish worship. Thus, Yahweh is actually not God, and this also means that Jewish monotheism is different from Islamic monotheism.


Whereas Christianity, is a name declared by Paul in the city of Antioch (now the territory of Turkey). Prophet Isa never introduced the name Kristos or called himself the son of God. Christianity is a religion whose basic theological building was founded by Paul, a Jew who claimed to be an Apostle. Precisely about sixty years after the sacrifice of the Prophet Jesus, there was a deviation, until the Pope came to give his Christian name.


The conclusion from the data states that Christianity is a cultural religion, not a divine religion. So it is natural that the theological foundation always develops metamorphosis. Like the concept of the trinity which was passed through the council of Nicea, not through revelation. So that Western scholars themselves admit that. Michael H. Hart, a US Christian theologian, said that those who founded Christianity were not Jesus, but Paul.


Hart argued so because he believed that Paul created the concept of the trinity - that is, a concept that was very contrary to the concept of monotheism taught by Prophet Jesus. Huston Smith inside The Religions of Man also concluded the same thing, that Christianity is a cultural religion.

Thus, the claim that Judaism and Christianity originated from Jews is not correct. Ideologically, it is very different from the theology of Prophet Ibrahim who has the concept of Tawhid. So, Islam cannot be equated with Judeo-Christians as an abrahamic religious group.

Islam is the only heir to the teachings of Prophet Ibrahim and the only dogish religion. Term use abrahamic faiths it is not appropriate to address all three religions. Because, the religion of Prophet Ibrahim and other prophets is only one, namely the religion of monotheism, as brought by the Prophet Muhammad. The only difference is the Shari'ah. There are Christians and Jews who are not monotheistic religions, but rather are called cultural religions.



By:
Master Khalili Hasib -Penulis is an InPAS Surabaya researcher


Undergroundtauhid/The Truth Seeker Media

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