Monday, June 25, 2012

Profile of Sukarno and his Political Career

Image-6904Full Name: Soekarno
Alias: Bung Karno | Pak Karno
Category: Politicians
Islam
Place of Birth: Surabaya, East Java
Date of Birth: Thursday, June 6, 1901
Zodiac : Gemini
Hobby :
Indonesian citizens

Father: Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo
Mother: Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai

Wife: Oetari, Inggit Garnasih, Fatmawati, Kartini Manoppo, Ratna Sari Dewi, Haryati, Yurike Sanger, Heldy Djafar
Brother: Taufiq Kiemas
Children: Megawati Soekarno Putri, Mohammad Guruh Irianto Soekarnoputra, Guntur Soekarnoputra, Rachmawati Soekarnoputri, Sukmawati Soekarnoputri, Taufan Soekarnoputra, Bayu Soekarnoputra, Totok Suryawan, Kartika Sari Dewi Soekarno


BIOGRAPHY

Ir. Soekarno or who is usually called Bung Karno who was born in Surabaya, East Java on June 6, 1901 from the couple Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo with Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai. Soekarno's father was a teacher. Raden Soekemi met Ida Ayu when she taught at Singaraja Indigenous Primary School, Bali. Soekarno only spent a small amount of his childhood with his parents until he finally stayed with his grandfather, Raden Hardjokromo in Tulung Agung, East Java. Soekarno first attended school in Tulung Agung until finally he joined his parents to move to Mojokerto.

In Mojokerto, his father entered Soekarno into the Eerste Inlandse School. In 1911, Soekarno was transferred to Europeesche Lagere School (ELS) to make it easier for him to be accepted at Hoogere Burger School (HBS). After graduating in 1915, Soekarno continued his education at HBS. in Surabaya, East Java.

In Surabaya, Soekarno met many figures from the Sarekat Islam, an organization which was then led by H.O.S. Tjokroaminoto who also gave a ride when Soekarno lived in Surabaya. From here, Sukarno's sense of nationalism continued to surge. In the following year, Sukarno began to be active in the activities of the youth organization Tri Koro Darmo which was formed as an organization from Budi Utomo. The name of the organization was then Soekarno and changed to Jong Java (Javanese Youth) in 1918.


In 1920 after graduating from HBS, Soekarno continued his studies at the Technische Hoge School (now renamed the Bandung Institute of Technology) in Bandung and majored in civil engineering. While attending school in Bandung, Sukarno lived in the residence of Haji Sanusi who was a member of the Sarekat Islam and a close friend of Tjokroaminoto. Through Sanusi Hajj, Soekarno interacted with Ki Hajar Dewantara, Tjipto Mangunkusumo and Dr. Douwes Dekker, who was then the leader of the National Indische Partij organization.


In 1926, Soekarno founded the Algemene Studie Club in Bandung which was inspired by the Indonesische Studie Club (led by Dr. Soetomo). Algemene Studie Club was the forerunner of the establishment of the Indonesian National Party in 1927. In December 1929, Soekarno was arrested by the Dutch and imprisoned in Banceuy Prison for his activities in the PNI. In 1930, Sukarno was transferred to Sukamiskin prison. From within this prison, Soekarno made a phenomenal pledoi, Indonesia Sued.


Soekarno was released on December 31, 1931. In July 1932, Soekarno joined the Indonesian Party (Partindo), which was a fraction of the PNI. Soekarno was again arrested by the Dutch in August 1933 and exiled to Flores. Because far away from exile, Soekarno was almost forgotten by other national figures. But Soekarno's spirit remained burning as implied in each of his letters to an Islamic Union Teacher named Ahmad Hasan. In 1938 until 1942 Soekarno was exiled to the Bengkulu Province. Soekarno was completely free after the Japanese occupation in 1942.


At the beginning of its population, Japan did not pay too much attention to the leaders of the Indonesian movement until finally around 1943 Japan realized how important these figures were. Japan began to take advantage of Indonesian movement figures, one of whom was Soekarno to attract the attention of the Indonesian population to Japanese propaganda. Eventually these national figures began to collaborate with the Japanese occupation government to achieve Indonesian independence, although some continued to carry out resistance movements such as Sutan Syahrir and Amir Sjarifuddin because they considered Japan a dangerous fascist.


Sukarno himself began to actively prepare for Indonesian independence, among which was formulating the Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution and the basic foundation of Indonesian government including formulating the text of the proclamation of Independence. In August 1945, Sukarno was invited by Marshal Terauchi, Army leader in Southeast Asia to Dalat, Vietnam. Marshal Terauchi stated that it was time for Indonesia to become a leader and all matters of the proclamation of Indonesian independence were the responsibility of the Indonesian people themselves.


After meeting Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam, there was a Rengasdengklok incident on August 16, 1945. Youth leaders from PETA demanded that Soekarno and Hatta immediately proclaim the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, because at that time there was a vacuum of power in Indonesia. This was because Japan had surrendered and the Allied forces had not arrived. But Soekarno, Hatta and several other figures rejected these demands with the excuse of waiting for clarity regarding the surrender of Japan.


In the end, Soekarno and other national figures began to prepare themselves ahead of the Proclamation of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia. Based on a hearing held by the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Business Investigation Agency (BPUPKI), a small committee for the proclamation ceremony consisting of eight people was officially formed. On August 17, 1945, Indonesia plotted its independence. The text of the proclamation was read out directly by Soekarno who had filled his yard since morning at Jl. Pegangsaan Timur 56, Jakarta. On August 18, 1945, Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta were appointed by PPKI to become President and Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia. On August 29, 1945 the appointment of President Soekarno and Vice President Mohammad Hatta was confirmed by the KNIP.


The independence that has been obtained cannot be enjoyed immediately because in the following years there were still allies who openly did not recognize Indonesian independence and even tried to re-colonize Indonesia. The ceasefire from the allies did not necessarily make the Indonesian people surrender, as happened in Surabaya when Dutch forces led by Brigadier General A.W.S Mallaby tried to attack Indonesia again. The Indonesian people in Surabaya vigorously continued to struggle to maintain independence until finally Brigadier General A.W.S Mallaby was killed and the Dutch government withdrew its troops again. War like this does not only occur in Surabaya but also in almost every city.


The Republic of Indonesia formally denounced the Dutch military aggression to the United Nations because the military aggression was considered to have violated an international agreement, namely the Linggajati Agreement. Even though it has been reported to the United Nations, the Netherlands continues its aggression. At the request of India and Australia, on 31 July 1947 the problem of military aggression launched by the Dutch was put on the agenda of the UN Security Council meeting, which was then issued by Resolution No. 27 dated 1 August 1947, which called for an end to armed conflict. At the pressure of the UN Security Council, on August 15, 1947 the Dutch Government finally declared it would accept the Security Council resolution to stop the fighting. On August 17, 1947, the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Government accepted the Security Council Resolution to carry out a ceasefire, and on August 25, 1947 the Security Council formed a committee that would mediate the conflict between Indonesia and the Netherlands.


After Recognition of Sovereignty (the Dutch Government said that as Sovereignty Sovereignty), President Soekarno was again appointed as President of the Republic of Indonesia (RIS) and Mohammad Hatta was appointed as prime minister of RIS. Position of President of the Republic of Indonesia. Because of the demands of all Indonesian people who want to return to the unitary state, then on August 17, 1950, RIS was again changed to become the Republic of Indonesia where Ir. Soekarno became President and Mohammad Hatta became his representative.


The G30-S / PKI Rebellion gave birth to a great political crisis in Indonesia. The masses from US (Indonesian Student Action Unit) and KAPI (Indonesian Student Action Unit) held a demonstration and delivered the Tri Demands of the People (Tritura), one of which demanded that the PKI be dissolved. However, Sukarno refused to dissolve the PKI because he judged that this action was contrary to Nasakom's views (Nationalism, Religion, Communism).


Sukarno's attitude that refused to dissolve the PKI then weakened his position in politics. Five months later, the Eleven March Order (Supersemar) was issued, signed by Sukarno, which contained an order to Lieutenant General Soeharto to take necessary measures to maintain the security of the government and the personal safety of the president. The letter was then used by Suharto who had been appointed Commander of the Army to dissolve the PKI and declare it a banned organization. MPRS also issued two provisions, namely TAP No. IX / 1966 concerning the inauguration of Supersemar to become TAP MPRS and TAP No. XV / 1966 which guaranteed Soeharto as the holder of Supersemar at any time could become president if the president was unable to attend. On June 22, 1966, Sukarno read his accountability speech regarding his attitude towards the G30S incident. This speech of accountability was rejected by the MPRS until finally on February 20, 1967 Sukarno signed a Declaration of Submission of Power at Merdeka Palace.


On Sunday, June 21, 1970 President Soekarno died at the Gatot Subroto Hospital (Army Central Hospital), Jakarta. President Soekarno was buried in Wisma Yaso, Jakarta and later buried in Blitar, East Java, adjacent to the tomb of his mother, Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai. The government then set a period of mourning for seven days.


Ir. Soekarno was a true hero. He is not only credited with giving service to his own people but also giving his service to peace in the world. All agree that Ir.Soekarno is an unusual human who is not necessarily born again in a century. Ir.Soekarno is the father of the nation that will not be replaced.


Research and Analysis: Fathimatuz Zahroh


EDUCATION

- Primary school education at Eerste Inlandse School, Mojokerto
- Primary school education at Europeesche Lagere School (ELS), Mojokerto (1911)
- Senior Citizen School (HBS) Mojokerto (1911-1915)
- Technische Hoge School, Bandung (now renamed the Bandung Institute of Technology) (1920)


APPRECIATION

- Honoris Causa Doctoral Degree from 26 universities at home and abroad including from Gajah Mada University, University of Indonesia, Bandung Institute of Technology, Padjadjaran University, Hasanuddin University, Jakarta State Islamic Institute, Columbia University (United States), Berlin University (Germany ), Lomonosov University (Russia) and Al-Azhar University (Egypt).
- Award for first-class star of the Order of the Supreme Companions of OR Tambo given in the form of medals, pins, sticks and badges all coated with gold from the South African President, Thabo Mbeki for the services of Soekarno in developing international solidarity to fight oppression by developed countries and has been an inspiration to South Africans in resisting colonialism and freeing themselves from apartheid politics. Submission of awards was held at the Union Buildings Presidential Office in Pretoria (April 2005).


Conspiracy / The Truth Seeker Media


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